It’s kind of interesting how the topic of timelapse has turned into the longest episode of this podcast. But that’s alright. There’s a lot here, starting with setting expectations all the way through to using an awesome software app that specializes in processing excellent quality time lapse videos. This is Latitude Photography Podcast episode 143 for May 8, 2022.
Listen where you want:
Some parts of the world move at a different rate of time than we can perceive with our vision. Time-lapse is a technique performed by taking a series of still photographs and then animate them as a video, using a playback rate different than they were taken. This then allows us to manipulate time and see these natural processes.
We normally think about time lapse as speeding up slow things, but slow motion is really another form of timelapse. But we’re only going to discuss ways to speed up the world around us here.
Making Timelapses –
A timelapse video like Kirk Mentioned in the show: https://youtu.be /AHrCI9eSJGQ
There are really only three things you need:
- You need a sense of wonder. Have you ever asked yourself, “What would something look like if I could speed up time?”
- You need time. Sometimes, lots of time. I’ve shot timelapses that took 5 minutes, and some that took 12 hours.
- A camera. And most any camera will do.
Subjects can include – sunrise /moonrise / sunset / moonset / stars / clouds / people / traffic or moving through traffic / plants / running water / tides – literally anything that moves.
Holy Grail Timelapse-
A Holy Grail One that starts in the day and goes into the night, or vice versa, one that starts in the night and goes into the day. You can have a double holy grail that starts in the day, goes into the night, and then back into the day. These are some of the hardest ones to shoot.
Like any photographic endeavor – you’ll get the best results if you have a knowledge of your shooting location. If possible, you’ll want to visit and see the site first hand. If that’s not possible, see if Google Maps, Google Earth, Google Street View can help. There are also some photo-location web sites that can help with planning shoots at new locations, like flickr.com or locationscout.net.
Think about your safety, and your camera’s safety. You’re going to be out there, possibly standing around for hours. Park your vehicle off the road. Don’t set up on the edge of busy roadways. You may want to bring a chair.
Exposure to the Elements –
Bring clothing layers, gloves, hats, sunscreen, bug spray, water, food, comfortable shoes – all the stuff you’ll want and need when you’re out standing around for however long it takes for your timelapse to be captured. If you’re shooting at night, even in the summer, you’ll probably want a couple extra layers of warm clothing.
I usually bring a second camera so I can shoot single images while the first camera is capturing a timelapse. Sometimes I bring a 3rd or even a 4th camera and set them up for time lapses as well. I mean, if I’m going to be there for a few hours, I might as well maximize my time!
Solid Ground –
Look for a stable location to set up your camera. Make sure it’s not going to fall off a ledge or into water.
Also check out the ground. Sometimes the ground is not firm – you may be in sand or a spot where the ground flexes as you step on it. If so, then you’ll want to not get too close to your camera while you capture your timelapse.
Stabilize Your Gear-
You may want to use a rock bag, a small fabric hammock that hangs between your tripod legs. Place a few rocks in it to weigh your camera and tripod down so they don’t move, or worse, blow over from a gust of wind. You may not be standing there to catch it when it starts to tip!
Some people like to hang their camera bag from the tripod – that can work. But I often want to grab stuff from my pack, and if it’s stabilizing my tripod, then I don’t want to touch it and risk bumping the tripod.
While any camera you can trigger at regular intervals will work, you’ll want to use a DSLR or Mirrorless camera rather than a point-and-shoot. Even a smartphone with a good camera can be used to great effect these days. They often have a time-lapse mode in them nowadays.
As for any kind of photography – I recommend a sturdy tripod and head. And by sturdy, I mean one that will hold its settings. Your timelapse may take hours to shoot, and you don’t want the camera to move during that period. So use a tripod that’s big enough to hold your camera in place, without the head moving, or even worse, a leg slipping, which may cause a catastrophic injury to your camera or lens.
I like the Benro 3-Way Geared Head as it holds my camera firmly in place and I can adjust all three camera axes independently. This is super helpful in the dark, when you may not even be able to see what you’re shooting through your camera and only have test shots to frame up your camera.
Lens choice –
Any lens you have – wide, normal, telephoto. All good. Manual control vs all auto lenses – I may have a slight preference for manually controllable lenses, ones with manual aperture rings. They allow you full control while your camera is busy shooting. But I don’t really think it’s a big issue.
An Intervalometer is a device that triggers your camera shutter at a predefined time period. Let’s get back to that in a bit.
I generally use none. If you have a wide angle lens, you may have issues with polarizers as the sun moves across the sky. Neutral Density filters can cause problems with shutter speeds once the sun sets.
But there could be times, like for a sunset, where you may want an ND grad to darken the sky and lighten the foreground when shooting into the sun.
Image File Format –
RAW. RAW. RAW. Did I say that enough times? There are many times may not be able to get a perfect exposure when shooting a timelapse. So you’ll want the extra flexibility that RAW files give you over JPGs.
Memory Cards –
Big. No Bigger. You’ll want big ones – ones that can hold a large number of images. Especially since you’re capturing them in RAW.
Say you’re shooting with a 24 MP camera in RAW and using a 32 GB memory card – that’s going to have enough room to hold just over 14 seconds of the final video, about 440 uncompressed images.
Say you wanted to go a bit longer when recording your time-lapse, and you’ll definitely want to do that occasionally! Well, your card is now full and you’d have to swap cards, giving you a break in the motion by the time you turn your camera off, remove the full card, insert a fresh card, and reboot the camera and then get the intervalometer running again.
So it’s just easier to use big cards. I recommend using a card that is large enough to hold about 1000 frames. That’s more than enough for most situations you’ll run into. Especially if you’ve been out shooting for a while and you’ve already got a partially filled memory card.
I like to use 64, 128 or even 256 GB SanDisk Extreme, Extreme Pro SD cards. If you want to save a little, Samsung makes some really good quality, inexpensive micro-SD cards. I’ve had great luck with them even when using them in SD card adaptors.
Intervalometers – Part II
There are lots of ways to go here. You can be a human intervalometer and literally press the shutter at a predefined interval and create a time lapse. But you may get bored, or worse, distracted, and miss the next interval.
Some cameras have built-in intervalometers. They are a great way to start, since you always have them with your camera.
If your camera doesn’t have a built-in intervalometer or you want more control while capturing your timelapse, you will want to get an external intervalometer. And there’s a wide range of external intervalometer choices.
Many of them can act as a remote shutter trigger, which you’ll probably want to have if you’re doing a lot of landscape, macro, or wildlife photography to reduce camera shake from pressing the shutter release.
Apps with WiFi-
There are apps that can connect to certain cameras via wifi/bluetooth.
Or there are cable releases that plug into your camera’s external shutter trigger. There’s a port, somewhere on your camera, that you plug a camera specific cable into, and then connect that cable to the intervalometer.
When you buy your intervalometer, make sure you select the one that’s made for your camera. The cable may be permanently attached to the intervalometer, but double check it will mate to your camera.
Issues with External Intervalometers-
There’s a couple problems with most hand-held intervalometers –
- Most are glorified shutter remotes. They work great for triggering your camera, but they are usually a pain to program as an intervalometer.
- They send a signal to your camera to activate the AF. When this happens, you cannot access any of your camera’s functions.
Let’s discuss some time-lapse terms:
- Interval – that’s the time between consecutive images.
The Interval is made of three time segments –
- Exposure – when your camera is capturing the image.
- Post exposure – when your camera is saving the image to the memory card.
- Pre-Exposure -the time before the camera is triggered for the next image.
You will only be able to make changes to your camera settings in Segment 3 – after the camera has finished writing to the memory card and before the next image.
Some intervalometers send an AF signal to the camera right before triggering the shutter. When this happens, you are blocked from making any adjustments to your camera. You will not be able to change settings for shutter speed, aperture (for electronically controlled apertures) or ISO.
I’ve tested several hand-held shutter remotes, and they have blocked the camera for up to 2 seconds!! That’s a lot of wasted time. And it means you may need to shoot with a longer interval.
On my Sony’s, where I sometimes need to access a couple menu items to make changes for like ISO, I need about two seconds to get in, change the setting, and then have the camera accept the change.
Higher-End Intervalometer Solutions:
LRTimelapse PRO-Timer 2.5 and 3.0 –
This device is purely an intervalometer. You can use it as a remote, but its primary purpose is to consistently trigger your camera with an easy to use interface. It also minimizes any AF signal sent to your camera. You can actually set it to zero if your camera will work without an AF signal. (My Sony mirrorless cameras all work without one.) This gives you the maximum time to make changes to your camera in between shots.
Smart Intervalometers with Exposure Calculation –
These solutions download a JPG from your camera, calculate the next exposure, send it to your camera by either wireless connection or a cable, and then trigger your camera. Some examples I have experience with are:
MIOPS Flex –
External device that triggers your camera and can be controlled by a smart device.
Arsenal 2 –
Another device that needs a smart device to program your timelapse settings. Can preview your timelapse from the JPGs while the camera is shooting.
An app that can automate and calculate your camera exposures with a lot of control from the photographer. Often used with an external trigger, but can trigger your camera as well. I’ve used this on occasion, and I like to use an old smartphone that I dedicate to qDSLRdashboard to minimize any possible glitches.
Timelapse+ View –
Like the others, it’s an external intervalometer that downloads JPGs from the camera as it shoots, calculates the next exposure, and sends the settings to the camera. The big difference is it’s completely self-contained. It doesn’t need a smart device to run it. It has a small color LCD screen and a menu system that you can program a large number of settings to control your camera.
It can even preview your timelapse on its LCD without you having to touch it while it runs. You merely wave your hand behind it and it will run the preview for you. Only catch is it’s sometimes finicky to get running. I have a friend that uses one with a couple Canon cameras (5DMk III and 6D) and it seems to have issues sometimes. Other days, it works great for him. It seems finicky about cables.
Camera Settings –
Shutter Speed –
Use a shutter speed that allows you to control the motion of your subjects. Often, that means longer shutter speeds. You tend to want the motion of your subject to flow smoothly between frames.
Subjects like moving water, traffic, or leaves moving in the wind, look best when there is some blur in them, as opposed to crisp, hard edges. Those hard edges make the motion of the timelapse look jerky and disjointed.
Long ago, motion picture cinematographers realized that setting the shutter speed to ½ the frame rate gave films a smoother, more natural look. Consider that when shooting your timelapse. If your interval time is 5 seconds, you may want to try an exposure time of 1, 2 or even 3 seconds. Consider using ND filters if they will give you the shutter speed you want.
Use an aperture that will keep your subject in focus and give you the range of shutter speed you need. For holy grails, that may mean having your lens nearly wide open. For daytime only shots, use whatever f-stop works and gives you the shutter speed range you want. Again, consider using ND filters.
Always shoot the lowest ISO you can to get the best quality image. You also get more dynamic range out of your camera sensor. That will help you recover any highlights or shadows from your exposures.
First – set your camera to manual focus mode. Then you’ll generally want to focus on your subject! An exception to this recommendation is if you’re shooting a landscape at night. Then you’ll want to focus on the stars. A lot of times you can use the hyperfocal distance to set exposure, but with stars, you’ll get sharper stars by focusing on them.
You may need to keep your distance from some foreground objects as they may be obviously out of focus. But the motion of the stars will attract the viewer’s eye and they probably will not notice the foreground is a bit soft. Wide angle lenses are your friend in this situation, especially 14, 16, or 20mm lenses, as they often have large depth of field even when wide open and focused on infinity.
If you have a manual lens, some people like to use some gaffer tape to keep from bumping the focus in the middle of the time-lapse. I don’t, but it may instill some confidence!
Turn them both off. You are on a tripod and don’t need In Body Stabilization.
And you don’t want the camera to be activating the Auto Focus. It takes time for the camera to find and set focus, and it may not get it before the next frame needs to be captured. Plus, there may be issues with focus breathing if the camera focuses on something either closer or more distant than where you want it to focus.
TEST YOUR SETTINGS!
Before you start your timelapse, critically example some test images. You want to make sure you have the right exposure settings, and proper focus. Once you start your sequence, there is no going back to shoot the beginning of your time lapse.
You’ll want to use an interval that shows enough motion from frame to frame that your timelapse actually shows a smooth motion of the subject. Of course, that is highly subject dependent!
But there are general guidelines that people use for some commonly filmed timelapses –
- 1 second – fast moving objects like traffic or walking people, fast clouds
- 3-5 seconds – Sunset/Moonset, Sunrise/Moonrise, Crowds, Slower Clouds
- 10-60 seconds – Sun, Moon, or stars moving across the sky.
Making exposure adjustments while shooting your timelapse –
There’s a few of ways to do this:
Manual Adjustments –
You can manually make changes to your exposure in between shots. You’ll need to pay close attention if you have changing light conditions – like clouds passing overhead or through the frame, the sun entering the frame, or the biggest, a holy grail timelapse as you go from day to night.
And depending on your shutter speed and the interval – you may not have much time to make these changes. You can use your camera’s histogram display to determine when you need to make adjustments. You probably will want to make shutter speed adjustments first, then aperture, and finally raise the ISO as it gets darker.
External Automation –
You can use any of the smart intervalometers I listed above. They can simplify your time lapse exposure changes, by doing them for you!
In-Camera Semi-Manual Automation –
I just made that term up, so if you have a suggestion on a better one, let me know!
If you have a mirrorless camera, then you can try letting the camera make the exposure adjustments. I’ve had great luck doing this with Sony mirrorless, and I suspect it will work with other mirrorless cameras.
Camera Motion in Timelapses –
Shoot using a camera rotator or slider. I’m not going to go into much detail, as sliders and rotators all have their own peculiarities, but you can have the motion control device trigger your camera. You’ll want to incorporate some automation for exposure like qDSLRDashboard, or the In-camera semi-manual automation technique I just discussed.
The Ken Burns Effect –
Or, you can cheat by moving the framing in the video. A 24mp camera has a sensor of about 6000 x 4000 pixels. To make a 4K video, you can crop down to 4K (4096 pixels on the long dimension) and then animate and move that crop from one side of the frame to the other side.
Processing your Timelapse
There’s a few ways you can process your photos into a timelapse. They are all going to require software that will take your series of images, display them sequentially, and then convert them into a video format, like MP4 or MOV.
For all of them, I’d recommend using Lightroom to process your RAW files, and then export the processed files to JPG or, if you want the highest quality, TIFF files.
If you have Lightroom, you probably have PhotoShop as well. You can import the edited files into PhotoShop using the Timeline panel that’s in the frame animation mode. You can do this by clicking on the filmstrip icon in that panel. I’ve not used this feature much, so I’ll defer to the instructions on the Adobe site: Save and export video and animations in Photoshop (adobe.com)
The best way I’ve found to create a timelapse is to use the program LRTimelapse. LRTimelapse works alongside Adobe Lightroom Classic to process your images.
There are a couple licensing options, a “Private License” and a Professional one. A free version is available as well, with all the same processing options, but you are limited to 400 frame timelapses and you have a reduced set of output options.
The thing that’s cool about LRTimelapse is that it allows you to select some of your images as “keyframes” – points in the timelapse where you want to make processing adjustments. You make adjustments to the keyframes, and then LRTimelapse mathematically interpolates the adjustments to smoothly adjust between the two keyframes.
So as an example, if you have 100 frames, and you want the first frame to have a Lightroom exposure adjustment of “0” and the 100th frame to be set to “1.00”, then LRTimelapse will figure out that since there are 100 images, each image will need to have and increase of 0.01 (1/100th) exposure adjustment made to each consecutive image.
LRTimelapse can adjust nearly every adjustment that Lightroom offers. And if you don’t have Lightroom, you can still use LRTimelapse with Adobe Camera RAW.
The huge benefit of this is that you may have a timelapse of 1000 RAW files, but you only need to make adjustments at 5 places in the timelapse. So you process those 5 keyframes, and then tell LRTimelapse to adjust all the other frames for you.
Sometimes when shooting a timelapse, the exposure will need to be changed as your scene gets brighter or darker. The smallest exposure adjustments you can make with your camera are 1/3rd of a stop, whether it’s shutter speed, aperture, or ISO. This will introduce what’s called “flicker” into your timelapse. It’s often most noticeable in areas of constant brightness or with a smooth texture, like the sky.
LRTimelapse can not only make the overall exposure changes you wanted when you processed the keyframes, it can recheck the brightness of your timelapse and make tiny adjustments inbetween the keyframes. You can even have it use just a small part of the image to control flicker, by selecting a section of the sky for LRTimelapse to calculate the deflicker adjustments.
LRTimelapse Workflow –
The workflow for LRTimelapse consists of a few basic steps. You can import your sequence into either LRTImelapse or Lightroom. In LRTimelapse, open the folder with your sequence. Your sequence of RAW images will be displayed in LRTimelapse with the earliest ones at the top of the list, and the latest at the bottom.
Examine the Interval column in LRTimelapse – look for gaps in the timelapse. You may have some big time differences between frames at the start of the sequence where you were getting your camera settings adjusted. You’ll want to remove them from the sequence. Select the frames you don’t want to keep, and right click on the selection. Look for the “Remove Images” option. Select that and LRTimelapse will move those images to a new folder and out of your time lapse folder.
Next, decide how many keyframes you want – you can either use the Keyframe Wizard, or manually select where you want to place the keyframes. You’ll always want to have the first and last frames set as keyframes. And then it just depends on how the light changed for your timelapse as to where you want any other keyframes. Two may be all you need, or you may more.
The graph in the upper left, will show you where your keyframes are with blue diamonds plotted on the luminance plot line. You can scroll through the sequence by grabbing the blue triangle on the timeline below the graph. You can even hit the play button under that to see a rough preview of your sequence.
And remember, you can always go back and add more keyframes if you need.
We’re going to use what’s called the “Visual Workflow” in LRTimelapse. It lets you process either a basic timelapse where there was little change in the brightness of the scene, or a more complex timelapse, like a day-to-night, night-to-day, or a day-to-night-to-day timelapse. All those are collectively called a “Holy Grail” timelapse, as they are the most prized as well as most difficult to shoot and process.
Save Metadata to XMPs
So now, we’re going to save an XMP file for each keyframe into the folder with our RAW files. The XMP files allow Lightroom a place to store the processing adjustments we are about to make to our keyframe images. So now click on the “Save” button in LRTimelapse.
If you imported your images into your computer using LRTimelapse, you need to bring them into Lightroom. You can do that by opening Lightroom Classic and then grab the “Drag to Lightroom” button in LRTimelapse and pull it over the Library window in Lightroom and drop it there. This will invoke the Importer in Lightroom.
If your images are already in your Lightroom catalog, then open the folder with your sequence.
In the Library view in Lightroom, go to the grid view. Make sure the filter setting, in the lower right corner, is set to LRT Full Seqeunce. Then select all the images, and then Metadata then Read Metadata from Files. You can find this by either right clicking on the selected images, or from the Metadata menu item. This will take a bit of time…
Then change the filter setting to LRT Keyframes and you’ll only see the keyframes you identified in LRTimelapse. The star ratings are used to identify the keyframes, so you don’t want to mess with the star ratings when working through this.
Select the first image, move to the Develop module and make the adjustments you want. When you’ve made your adjustments to the first image, then add the second keyframe to the selection by clicking on it in the filmstrip. You should have two images selected, with the first one “brighter” then the second.
Syncing Keyframes –
Go up to Scripts and select “01 LRTimelapse Sync Keyframes” and Lightroom will apply all the develop settings you made on the first image to the second one. Then go back into the Develop mode and make any edits you want to the second keyframe. Make sure you’ve selected the second keyframe at this point. You’ll notice all the adjustments you made to the first one will now be applied to the second frame.
One Caveat on Developing Keyframes –
If you want to use Lightroom Masks, then there are several that LRTimelapse has already created. Use those for your mask layers – don’t add any extras or delete any that are already there.
Work your way through all your keyframes in this stepwise fashion – select a keyframe, make edits, apply the edits with the Sync Keyframes script to the next keyframe, and then edit that one. And on until your sequence is processed.
Write All Adjustments to XMP Files –
Once all your Keyframes are processed, from the Library module, select all the keyframes, and then write the adjustments to the XMP files. Do this from the Metadata menu and selecting “Save Metadate to Files.”
Back to LRTimelapse-
Return to LRTimelapse. You’ll now be working with the second row of buttons.
Click on the “Auto-Transition” button and LRTimelapse will read all the processing you just did in Lightroom into LRTimelapse and interpolate the transitions from one keyframe to the next. When it’s done, it will show you a visual plot of the Visual Luminance of your timelapse in the graph on the upper left.
Visual Previews –
Next press the Visual Previews button and LRTimelapse will apply the adjustments you made in Lightroom to the previews in LRTimelapse. This can take a long time, depending on file size and the number of files in your sequence. It shows the progress under the graph.
Once the previews are rendered, then you can look at the pink curve in the graph. That line shows the exposure – and the jumps up and down along that line are the flicker that we are now going to remove.
Visual Deflicker –
Select the Visual Deflicker button. From that menu, I usually use multi-pass deflicker set to three maximum passes, and set the smoothing to some where that the pink line looks somewhat smooth in the graph. You aren’t looking for a completely flat line, but rather a smooth line. Hit apply and LRTimelapse will do it’s magic.
Ligthroom for the Export –
You can let LRTimelapse reprocess all the visual previews, which can take a while! Go get lunch!
But the Metadata has already been saved, and you can go to Lightroom and reload the metadata there and let Lightroom update all the image processing.
Display Full Sequence –
So back in Lightroom, in the Library module, make sure the filter is set to LRT – Full Sequence. Then select all the images (CTRL-A) and then from the Metadata menu, select Read Metadata from Files. This will apply all the adjustments that LRTimelapse made back onto the images in Lightroom.
Rendering the Timelapse-
You should be in the Lightroom Library module and have the Full Sequence displayed.
Select Export button, and at the top of the Export dialog box, set Export to to be “Export Time Lapse (LRTimelapse)” and select LRTimlapse / LRT (JPG 4k) or one of the other presets available. You’ll want to make sure the LRTimelapse executable is set to the prober folder so Lightroom knows where to find your install of LRTimelapse.
Then set the output path, a folder where you want your rendered sequences and video to be on your computer. Finally, click on the “Export” button and let it go.
When that’s done, a LRTimelapse Render dialog box will appear. Try Standard Full HD in the presets at the top left. You can adjust crop and aspect ratio if you like at this point.
Click on Render Video and let it go!
And that’s it! After you wait a while… It does take a while to render a video. But once it’s done, it’s going to be worth all the time and effort it took to create it.
A dose of inspiration:
Job 9:9 says: “He made all the stars—the Bear and Orion, the Pleiades and the constellations of the southern sky.” NLT
Dr. Seuss: “How did it get so late so soon? It’s night before it’s afternoon. December is here before it’s June. My goodness how the time has flewn. How did it get so late so soon?”
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